Thursday, August 27, 2020

Democracy in the uk Essay Example for Free

Majority rules system in the uk Essay I love perusing sentiment catastrophe books. Right off the bat it offers me the chance to distinguish love; the amazing way love developments, what explicit component bring the personas close and joined inwardly. Moreover it gives top to bottom data about adoration and the parts of affection, this is fascinating on the grounds that affection is a piece of regular daily existence and many individuals can identify with it which makes it relatable. Furthermore the perusers (I) feels comprehensive and just as gain from it so as to forestall the slip-ups made by the characters inâ the book, or to Improve connections which will benefits me and furthermore it makes the story engaging and fascinating. Thirdly perusing a sentiment book is an extremely incredible to unwind and escape from the everyday world. What's more, I paint an image which causes me make a picture in my mind which nearly appear as though I am viewing a film this makes the book extremely meddling and causes me to long to understand more. There are specific sorts of kinds that I don’t appreciate perusing, for example, dreams this is on the grounds that it is unreasonable as it a paint a ridiculous imagineâ which doesn’t make the book relatable and frequently it debilitating as the perusers don't feel comprehensive. I would surely favor it on the off chance that it was blended in with an alternate class for instance sentiment etc†¦ However it might reasonable for individuals who needs to escape from this present reality and have a gutsy perusing. For example youngsters. I appreciate composing when I am discouraged or befuddled this is on the grounds that it gives me the positive feeling as I get the chance to communicate my emotions, contemplations andâ decision this causes me ease pressure all the worry as it doesn’t turned into a barding so by having this alleviation I keep an eye on an answer any issue I’m experiencing. Perusing causes me to investigate diverse thing so by this I read pretty much consistently for instance paper on my approach to school, I have an hour 15mintes excursion. Perusing keep me conscious and restored as I get the chance to find out about various this that’s going on the planet and commend tattles etc†¦ this causes me to be prepared and arranged for my exercises asâ my cerebrum helps my mind remain dynamic. I am perusing books I quit during tests meeting ‘vampire beach’ and the accompanying novel is called ‘ritual and legacy’ I am very interfere to peruse this book since I delighted in perusing different books as it meets to my desires and the class of the book is likewise about sentiment, extraordinary and enticement which makes it extremely fascinating as there’s various stories in the book due to the arresting, assortment of subjects as the peruser don’t get exhaustion.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

An Introduction to Plastic Gears :: essays papers

An Introduction to Plastic Gears As a worker of a world-class plastic apparatus producer for a long time, I perceive how this is an obviously developing piece of the rigging business. I would like to quickly depict how something apparently straightforward as a plastic apparatus requires the summit of numerous very best in class forms. Inside single word I’ll state that at each level exactness is required. At first, an apparatus engineer must plan a rigging that meets the structure aim while staying discerning of all factors that come about because of utilizing materials, for example, plastic. This specialist must structure an apparatus cathode that will really decide the type of the rigging. This anode is then copied into the form cavity utilizing a strategy ordinarily alluded to as EDM or electrical release machining. It is fundamental that the rigging cathode be sliced indistinguishable from the completed apparatus tooth structure. Some pay is regularly made for the shrinkage of plastic just as the overburn that happens during the EDM procedure. The rigging engineer typically will modify the apparatus tooth geometry to calm pressure and fortify the rigging tooth structure. This modification is ordinarily done at the base or base of the apparatus tooth and at the tip or pinnacle of the tooth. Next, a shape creator at that point will assess what the normal existence of the apparatus program will be so he can construct a form that is powerful and able delivering the a large number of parts with the most noteworthy of precision. He will guarantee that the plastic that will enter the form will go along adjusted pathway or sprinter framework that will take into account reliable fill into each shape cavity. His instrument for assessing this stream is done through a PC model generally alluded to as form stream investigation. He should be fit for understanding what makes a decent shape just as a decent rigging. When the form is finished it is then set into an infusion shaping machine. It is significant in the exactness gear forming industry that the embellishment unit has a profoundly controlled framework set up to screen the trim procedure. It is similarly significant during this procedure that there is a methods by which every single fringe variable can be controlled. This is finished using a focal processor, which will keep up balance on all settings for each parameter. Transducers transfer the entirety of their data into a focal processor that will screen and keep up this reliable procedure.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Things To Do Before Reviewing A Product (Checklist)

Things To Do Before Reviewing A Product (Checklist) Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!Things To Do Before Reviewing A Product (Checklist)Updated On 18/02/2016Author : Shabarish BalajiTopic : BloggingShort URL : CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlogAs I know that most of the newbie bloggers write a review article of a product without knowing what it does. It is weird to write articles or reviews about an unknown product. It is also harmful for your blogs and your reputation. Every Pro Blogger review an article only by knowing them and using them completely. So in this article Ill show you the (Checklist) things to do before reviewing a Product. In order to increase sales and you will be able to write it completely and know its pros and cons.(Checklist) Things to Do Before Reviewing a Product1. Buy And Use The ProductThis is one of the or the major task or checklist before reviewing a product. You have to buy the product and use it for a week or a month. Get to know about it completely, dont Pretend or copy the review from other blogs. This will definitely spoils your blog’s reputation and also your reputation in blogosphere.2. Check The Manufacturer ReputationNever ever forget to check the Manufacturer or the person who is behind the product. This ensures that you are not reviewing about any spam or scam product and lose your reputation. Search for review and user rating of the product or the manufacturer before writing a review. Do a really intense research about the manufacturer and check what people are speaking about the product and about the manufacturer. Also check what other bloggers have reviewed about that product.I know that its time consuming but it helps you to choose the right product to review.READPagerank Vs Alexa Rank [DISCUSSION]3. Create A Brief Idea Of The ProductAfter you have done with all the researching of the product, you have to get an idea of the product that how you gonna write it on y our blog. Is it a video review or audio review or an article review?! Prepare a basic idea and start writing the article. Be Honest on what youre writing .4. Search For The Best Alternative ProductSearch for the best alternative product of the existing product. We all know that there are several same products with more features and more commissions. Search all affiliate sites. If you cant find it then make use of Google and search for the alternatives.5. Conduct A Poll On Facebook or On Your BlogThis is not an important checklist to do, but it is better to conduct a poll on your Facebook profile or on your blog asking your friends or readers to vote whether the product is good, working, real, scam, etc. Mention the poll results on your review. People will get to know what others are saying about the product and it will also create conversion and you will get more sales.ConclusionI hope that from now all the newbies and some of the pro bloggers will research and write a honest review of a product and make tons of sales. If you have any problem please dont hesitate to comment below.

Monday, May 25, 2020

What Was the Main Goal of Wollstonecrafts Advocacy

Mary Wollstonecraft is sometimes called the mother of feminism, as her main goal was to see women gain access to segments of society largely off-limits to them in the 18th century. Her body of work is primarily concerned with womens rights. In her 1792 book, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, now considered a classic of feminist history and feminist theory, Wollstonecraft argued primarily for the right of women  to be educated. She believed that through education would come emancipation. The Significance of the Home Mary Wollstonecraft accepted that womens sphere is in the home, a common belief during her time, but she did not isolate the home from public life as many others had. She thought public life and domestic life were not separate but connected. The home was important to Wollstonecraft because it forms a foundation for social life and public life. She argued that the state, or the public life, enhances and serves both individuals and families. In this context, she wrote that men and women have duties to both the family and the state. The Benefit of Educating Women Mary Wollstonecraft also argued for the right of women to be educated, since they were primarily responsible for the education of the young. Before the Vindication of the Rights of Man, Wollstonecraft mostly wrote about the education of children. In Vindication, though, she frames this responsibility as a primary role for women, distinct from men. Wollstonecraft went on to argue that educating women would strengthen the marital relationship. A stable marriage, she believed, is a partnership between a husband and a wife. A woman, thus, needs to have the knowledge and reasoning skills that her husband does to maintain the partnership. A stable marriage also provides for the proper education of children. Duty Before Pleasure Mary Wollstonecraft recognized that women are sexual beings. But, she pointed out, so are men. That means the female chastity and fidelity necessary for a stable marriage require male chastity and fidelity too. Men are required as much as women to put duty over sexual pleasure. Perhaps Wollstonecrafts experience with Gilbert Imlay, father of her eldest daughter, clarified this point for her, as he was not able to live up to this standard. Putting duty above pleasure does not mean feelings are unimportant. The goal, for Wollstonecraft, was to bring feeling and thought into harmony. She called this harmony between the two reason. The concept of reason was important to the Enlightenment philosophers, but Wollstonecrafts celebration of nature, feelings, and sympathy also made her a bridge to the Romanticism movement that followed. (Her younger daughter later married one of the best-known Romantic poets, Percy Shelley.) Mary Wollstonecraft found that womens absorption in pursuits related to fashion and beauty undermined their reason, making them less able to maintain their role in the marriage partnership. She also thought it reduced their effectiveness as educators of children. By bringing together feeling and thought, rather than separating them and dividing them along gender lines, Wollstonecraft was also providing a critique of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a philosopher who defended personal rights but did not believe in individual liberty for women. He believed a woman  was incapable of reason, and only a man could be trusted to exercise thought and logic. Ultimately, this meant women could not be citizens, only men. Rousseaus vision doomed women to a separate and inferior sphere. The Link Between Equality and Freedom Wollstonecraft made clear in her book that she believed women had the capacity to be equal partners to their husbands, and in society. A century after she advocated for womens rights, women enjoyed greater access to education, affording them more opportunities in life. Reading A Vindication of the Rights of Woman today, most readers are struck with how relevant some parts are, while others read as archaic. This reflects the enormous changes in the value society places on womens reason today, as compared to the 18th century. However, it also reflects the many ways in which issues of gender equality remain.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

International Marketing - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2522 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Narrative essay Level High school Did you like this example? INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Assignment set 1 Q: 1 Explain the different economic indicators which give us the idea of the economic condition of the country in brief. The economic condition can be measured with the help of some economic indicators. These are the variables designed to predict changes in the business cycle. The size of population He larger the population, larger will be the market. The population of a country changes because of the three factors listed below: 1) Birth rate. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "International Marketing" essay for you Create order 2) Death rate. 3) Migration in and out of the country The distribution of population is an important aspect of forecasting the demand of the product and is helpful in market segmentation decisions. Different age groups will have different demands and population density is a good pointer of market attractiveness. Level of income and its distribution: The income level is usually represented by Gross national product (GNP) or Gross Domestic product (GDP). GDP: it is the aggregate of the total output of goods and services by a country during a financial year. GNP: GDP plus the income from abroad. World Bank has classified countries by their per capita income in the following categories: Low income countries US $ 875 or less. Middle income countries US $ 876-10725. High income countries US $ 10,726 or above. Another way of classifying countries according tots economic activity can be: Less developed countries, Pre-industrial countries, Developing countries, i ndustrialized countries, advanced countries. the study of population helps in making market segments and accordingly the company can cater to the demands of both high and low price versions of the same product in the same country. Market structure: To evaluate the economic condition of a country, we must know the structure of the market. The main classifications are: 1.Perfect competition The main characteristics of this market are: Lots of producers and consumers. Identical products. Price is set by the market forces (demand and supply). Willingness to pay. Monopolistic competition Monopolistic competition is more realistic condition than perfect competition. Main characteristics of this market are: Large number of firms producing slightly differentiated products. Sole producer of a particular product so is a monopolist of that product/brand. The differentiation is only from the point of view of buyers. Each firm has some degree of control over prices. Buyers become loyal to the product/brand. New firms are free to enter the market. Oligopoly Main characteristics of this market are: Few firms having similar or different products. Each firm has some degree of control over price. Reaction of rivals is very important. Interdependence of behavior in case of oligopoly. New entry is difficult. Stages of business cycle Prosperity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" boom à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" decline à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" depression à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" recovery Consumption pattern: Consumption means final purchase of the goods and services by the individuals Inflation Inflation is defined as a general increase in the level of prices. When the level of prices are high in a country companies might not find it beneficial to sell its products as the purchasing power of individuals reduces as the real income reduces. Accessibility to human resources: The abundance of human resource makes the manufacturing process easy and lowers the cost of production. To understand the nuances of the business in the host country, the company prefers to recruit the local skilled or semi-skilled labor. That is why the company looks at this factor while analyzing the economic environment of the host country. Infrastructure: The importance of infrastructure needs no emphasis. For the functioning of the company, road and rail connection, telecommunication facilities, power supply and so on is required. A support infrastructure is a precondition for the development of any industry. The companies must assess the availability of infrastructure of the host country. Q: 2 Write short notes on: Arbitration b) FDI Arbitration Arbitration is a technique of dispute resolution in international commercial transactions, or outside the court .it is that techniquie in which the third party reviews the evidences and impose decision. It is most commonly used in matters such as consumers and is faster and cost effective process. Some of the benefits of arbitration may be as follow: It limits the dispute and associated libilities because most legal systems there are very limited avenues for for appeal of an arbitral award. In judicial proceedings the official language of the country is automatically applied where as in arbitral priceedings any language may be used. Arbitration awards are generallu easier than judicial awards. Arbitration is often faster than litigation in court It is more flexible and cheaper for businesses. Arbitral awards and proceedings are generally made confidential and non-public. Arbitrators with appropriate degrees are appointed when the subject ,atter of the dispute is highly technical. Exclusionary rules of evidence donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t apply; everything can come into evidence so long as relevant and non-cumulative. There is less exposure to punitive damages and run away juries from defense point of view The fact of finality of arbitration awards that normally there is no right of appeal to the courts to change the award. FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) foreign direct investment, a company directly invests in another country to make or market an entity in a foreign country. The investing company may make investment in a number of ways in overseas by setting up associated or subsidiary company in foreign country by joint venture, mergers or shares of a foreign company. Foreign direct investment is passive investment such as stock and bonds in contrast to portfolio investment. Brown field strategy is one form in which the company aspiring to go international decides to invest in an existing company in a suitable location/country. That existing company has most of the infrastructure, but the technology involved may be obsolete, present operating capacity may far less than the installed capacity and also may be in need of funds for modernization and increase production. The second form of market entry strategy is through green field investment, where a new unit is established after creating all th e required infrastructure and permission from the local government. Q:3 What are the issues related channel decisions in international marketing? Most producers rarely sell their goods directly to the final consumers. Most often producers rely on a marketing channel which comprise of a host of marketing intermediaries performing a variety of functions and bearing a variety of names. One of the most crucial decisions facing management is marketing-channel decisions. All the other marketing decisions are very closely affected by the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s selected channels. 1-Relatively long-term commitments to other businesses are involved in a companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s channel decisions. 2-There is also a powerful inertial tendency in channel arrangements 3-The scope of distribution channels extends beyond simple convenience to include impacting the productà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s meaning. Effectiveness of international distribution channels: The Five Cà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Framework can be used by international marketers to determine the effectiveness of their international distribution channels: Coverage à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Ability of channel to connect with targeted customers to accomplish market share and growth objectives. Character à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Congruence of channel with the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s sought after product positioning. Continuity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The channel loyalty to the company. Control à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The ability of the company to control the whole marketing program for the product or service. Cost à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The investment needed to set up and maintain the channel- variable associated with sales level. Fixed costs needed to manage the channel: training of sales force, facilities and inventories. Control over distribution: 1-There is a global trend toward shorter distribution channels and closer links, if not direct relationships, with those active participants in the channe l. 2-It is the view of some that the sole way to internationalise is to navigate closer and closer to complete control by means of totally owned subsidiary. This however is a fairly incorrect one. 3-First, we have to consider Industry characteristics, the value-addition of the business and what the consumers really desire are to be first considered. Secondly, close control through a commission agent or joint venture is often possible. Control and ownership should not be directly equated. Q:4 What are the different strategies adopted by the marketer while fixing the price for the product? Different strategies are adopted by the marketers while fixing the price for the product and these strategies need to be monitored and reviewed at regular intervals. Cost based pricing or Cost plus pricing: This is the most common method of pricing followed by the marketers. Price = [Fixed costs + Variable costs + Overheads + Marketing costs] + specified percentage of the total cos ts (representing the profit portion) Market Oriented Pricing method is highly flexible and provides for prices to be changed in tune with changes in the market conditions. This method is also referred to as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"what the traffic will bear methodà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Following competitors Following the leaders is a common trend seen in every field of activity in our daily lives. Similarly, even in the case of fixing prices, many firms simply follow the dominant competitors. These dominant competitors are also called as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"price leadersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Three alternative ways of following the competitor: Fixing the price at the same level as that of the competitor Fixing a lower price than the one fixed by the competitor Fixing a price which is higher than that of the competitorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Negotiated prices This method is commonly adopted when dealing with powerful buyers who buy in large quantity, for example, Governments and institutions. Customer determined price In case of international marketing, often, the foreign buyer indicates the price at which he is prepared to buy the product. By virtue of this, the seller is pre-empted from quoting his price. Break-even pricing For any marketer, there is a particular point in his business game where he is able to cover all the expenses incurred by him but he is not able to earn any profit from the activity he is pursuing. Break-even price à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the price for a given level of output at which there is neither any loss nor profit. Break-even point à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" popularly called BEP, this is the point or the level of sales at which the total revenue will exactly equal the total cost. Margin of safety à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the difference between the BEP and the expected capacity utilization is known as the margin of safety. Margin of safety = expected capacity utilization à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" break-even point From the above we can interpret: a) Lower the BEP, higher the chance of the project making profit b) Lower the BEP, higher the margin of safety c) If the BEP is very high, the risk will also be very high. Marginal Cost Pricing This approach is more suitable in evaluating and analyzing the profitability of the new orders in case of firms with idle capacity i.e., the firm is not utilizing its installed optimally. Creative Pricing Creative pricing is a concept derived from the marginal costing approach. Creative pricing approach advocates tapping the advantage of the flexibility between the lower limit of break-even price and the upper limit of the competitorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s price for a similar product. If the marginal cost is very less when compared to the price of the competitor, there is leverage to the exporter to adopt aggressive pricing policies in case of export order. Q: 5 what is personal selling? Explain with reasons why local nationals are preferred as sales per sonnel in international marketing? Delivery of a specially designed message to a prospect by a seller, usually in the form of face-to-face communication, personal correspondence, or a personal telephone conversation. According to Stanton, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“personal selling is the personal communication of information to persuade prospective customer to buy something à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" a product, service, idea or something else. This is in contrast to the mass, impersonal communication of advertising, sales promotion and or other promotional toolsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Advantages Personal selling is one of the most effective way of marketing communication. It also helps to overcome the marketing barriers in few cases. 1) A side benefit for your business is the opportunity to gain market research from this personal contact. You can gain knowledge about what your potential clients really think, what your competitors are up to and what is currently missing from the marketplace off erings 2) On account of the personal touch, the marketer is in a position to get meaningful feedback, suggestions for improvement and redress the complaints and grievances promptly. 3) Personal selling is highly flexible as the marketer can develop specific plans to handle every customer. 4) It is highly cost-effective especially for the small marketers with limited resources at their disposal. 5) Personal selling is an effective and fast track approach to convert inquiry into sales. 6) Opportunity to build a stronger long-term relationship. Personal contact will encourage loyalty 7) Try before you buy à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" depending on your product/service, potential clients may be able to trial the product/services before actually purchasing. Advantages of using local nationals International business firms need to engage the services of expert sales force as a first step in managing personal selling. While recruiting marketing and sales personnel going to hand le a particular foreign market, Local market need to be appointed. However, if in a foreign market, third country nationals are likely to succeed in personal selling, third country personnel can also be engaged. With the growth in international marketing, it is anyway ideal to use local nationals for the purpose of personal selling. English being the internationally accepted language, sales person so selected need to have good spoken English to enable them to translate the objectives of the business firm into a profitable venture. For example the sale of certain consumer goods like vacuum cleaner (Eureka Forbes) and water purifiers (Aqua guard) through personal selling is very effective. The sales personnel are reaching the ultimate users and persuading them to purchase the goods explaining the technology and long- term advantages to the households. They also convey the disadvantages to the households if the particular consumer goods are not used in terms of inability to provi de pure drinking water and maintaining the houses clean. Q: 6 discuss the advantages of direct and indirect exporting. Advantages of direct exporting In direct export eliminating intermediaries increases the potential profit In direct marketing you have greater flexibility to improve or redirect your marketing efforts as your business develops in foreign ,market Marketplace is better understood You can present yourself fully committed and engaged in t he export process Fast and direct feedback by customers are provided to you for your product and performance You know whom to contact if something isnt working Better protection for trademarks, patents and copyrights are provided. Better communication with the customers is available for more effective and efficient performance and product. Awareness of customers is increased. Transactions take place over greater control. Advantages if indirect exporting It does not require any market expertise Concentration of resources towards production It provides a path to enter foreign markets without the complexities Little or no financial commitment as the clients exports usually covers most expenses associated with international sales. Low risk exists for companies who consider their domestic market to be more important and for companies that are still developing their RD, marketing, and sales strategies. Export management is outsourced, alleviating pressure from management team In indirect exporting company can start exporting with no incremental investment in fixed capital, low start-up costs and few market risks but with prospects for incremental sales.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Issue Of Teenage Obesity - 1231 Words

Teenage obesity is one if the sternest topics viewed globally. The epidemic has severe outcomes and can sometimes be fatal. An obese child is any child or teen that is severely overweight and has a body mass index, or BMI, that is equal to or greater than the 85th percentile which equates to about 10 percentage points higher than the recommended body weight for their height and body type. Doctors claim that today about 1 in 3 kids are overweight or obese. A number of studies have shown how being an obese teen can lead to being an obese adult which can also affect the future generations. The number of American children who are obese or overweight is growing at an alarming rate. Obesity causes many negative factors. Extra pounds put kids at risk of serious health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, and asthma. Childhood obesity also takes an emotional toll. Overweight children are frequently teased and excluded from team activities, which can lead to low self-esteem, negative body image, and depression. However, with the right support, encouragement, and positive role modeling, you can help your child reach and maintain a healthy weight and eliminate many of the negative diseases that are associated with obesity. According to a recent article from, The Daily Telegraph, parents aren’t the cause for teens being obese. â€Å"A study suggested that while parents who were overweight were responsible for obesity among smaller children, by the time youngsters reachedShow MoreRelatedThe Growth Of Teenage Obesity Essay1309 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The growth in teenage obesity in the course of recent decades, together with the related health issues and expenses, is growing serious concern among parents and health care professionals. This research paper begins by studying research on energy intake, energy expenditure, and â€Å"energy balance,† observing that teenagers who consume extra â€Å"empty calories† and spend fewer calories by performing physical activity are more liable to be obese than other teenagers. Most importantly changesRead MoreTeenage Girls and Media Essay576 Words   |  3 PagesTeenage girls receive around 40 hours of media exposure every week. This is the most time that teens spend on an activity other than school and sleeping. Teenage girls are highly influenced by the ideal body image that they see on screen. Girls have a difficult time trying to attain the ideal body image and may diet or develop eating disorders to take control of their weight and body figure. When girls fail to do so, they can become depressed and have a lower self-esteem. However, most of the bodiesRead MoreTeens Eating Better Than Gaining Weight1192 Words   |  5 Pagesand change the overall purpose of the experiment by shifting to a different audience while neglecting to include all of the information The issues behind Hulick’s accommodations would not be so extreme had she not redirected the article’s content to a teenage audience. In her article, she is speaking to teens who are seeking information regarding teenage weigh gain. Although Hulick’s accommodation suits this audience, many of her changes greatly impact the purpose of the original work. Lee’s audienceRead MoreThe Novel The Spirit Level I Came Into Inequality901 Words   |  4 PagesI came into conclusion that the inequality in developed countries is great threat to society as a whole. The major issues that are brought up in the book are the inequality between the rich and the poor in developed countries but also the comparison between developing countries. The book dives into several factors that are the effects of the inequality ranging from obesity, teenage birth, life expectancy etc.†¦ I would discuss in depth on each of these factors and how they all are key componentsRead Mor eThe Problem Of Teenage Obesity Essay1177 Words   |  5 PagesTeenage obesity is rising significantly not only in the New Zealand but all throughout the world. It is growing epidemic and it’s a terrible thing. Watching a teenager wobble around all day out of breath and struggling to manage the stairs at school something no one should ever witness but with 18%⠁ ´ of teenagers obese it’s becoming a more common site everyday. Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases and it can lead to more serious problem in the end and can be fatal that can cause even deathRead MoreInactivity and Obesity Essay778 Words   |  4 PagesModule 2 Case Assignment BHE418 :: Health Behavior November 26, 2012 INACTIVITY AND OBESITY Review the article â€Å"Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents:   A latent class analysis approach† for this assignment. As individuals and families spend more time in front of televisions, playing video games, surfing the internet, etc., incidence and prevalence rates of overweight and obese people in throughout the world increase.   Based on the articleRead MoreObesity in Society Essay example935 Words   |  4 PagesObesity in Society In past years, there has been a great deal of concern throughout North America about the prevalence of certain conditions, which affect teenagers more than any other age group. Eating disorders, drug abuse, stress and peer pressure have all had their moment in the spotlight. In the eighties Bulimia and suicide made their mark. In the nineties, teen violence reached it peak. Now, years later, there is a new villain in the town of adolescence. HisRead MoreChildhood Obesity: A Growing Problem795 Words   |  3 PagesChildhood obesity is a growing problem that needs to be resolved. Many people may say it is the Child’s fault, he is weak willed. This is just a common misconception; there are hundreds of different reasons for childhood obesity. I will just be scratching the surface of this paper. By the same token childhood obesity is a growing problem that needs to be resolved. We can achieve this by understanding some common misconceptions, understanding health problems, and understanding fitness. ThereforeRead MoreHealth System Differences : Louisiana And Illinois823 Words   |  4 PagesILLINOIS The Health system in Louisiana and Illinois is widely different on basis of access to healthcare, mental health issues and many others. Looking at overall performance of healthcare system by measuring 42 different variables such as at systemic level, from insurance coverage to vaccination rates to avoidable hospital stays and at individual level, from rate of obesity to numbers of adults who have lost six or more teeth, Illinois is among the third quartile while Louisiana is among the bottomRead MoreAmeric Are We Really Free?903 Words   |  4 PagesEvery day, nearly one-third of U.S. children ages four to nineteen eat from a fast food restaurant this adds on about six extra pounds per child every year and increases their risk of obesity (Fast Food). In my research I learned a lot about the health risks that come with eating fast food. Fast food causes childhood obesity rates in America to increase because of its convenience, ingredients, and lack of telling people what is in the fo od. The convenience of fast food plays a major role in how often

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Development of Grammatical Categories of Adjective free essay sample

The development and the change of a language is not only on the lexicon, but it can be on the other elements of the linguistics, and the causes of the changes are various, such as: the political, social, cultural and technological development. There is a problem, however, of whether the development of the language can be directly observed or not. It is the genuine characteristic of a language that a language develops, and the process is for centuries. It is impossible to observe the development of a language directly since the age of man is limited. Something, which can be observed and studied are the proofs or the data of the changes. Unfortunately, not every language can give the proofs. Only languages which have written documents from era to era can provide them. The English, Arabic and Javanese belong those which can be traced, because they have written documents. According to the documents, English can be categorized into three periods. We will write a custom essay sample on Development of Grammatical Categories of Adjective or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The period from 450 to 1150 is known as Old English, from 1100 to 1500 is known as Middle English, and from 1500 up to now is known as Modern English. The English language of today reflects many developments and changes of the last centuries. The political and social events had effected the English. The Christianizing of Britain in 597 brought England into contact with Latin civilization and it made additions to the English vocabularies. The Scandinavian invasions made a considerable mixture of the two peoples and their languages. The English, for two centuries, was only used by the lower class while the nobles and those associated with them used French as the result of the Norman Conquest. In 1066, English regained supremacy as the language of all elements of the population, and it greatly changed in both the form and vocabulary. In a similar way the Hundred Years’ War, the rise on an important middle class, the Renaissance, the development of English as maritime power, the expansion of the British Empire, and the growth of commerce and industry of science and literature , have each in its way, contributed to make the English language what it is today. Therefore, the development of the English adjective can be traced and discussed. Linguists differentiate the language changes into two, the internal and external changes. The first happens on the language itself, such as, the changes of the phonology, morphology, semantic, syntactic and lexicon system. And the latter undergoes changes because of the external influence such as contacts with other people having different languages. This happens because of word borrowing, word absorbing, phonological changing etc. Actually the easiest language change to observe is the lexicon change, but as stated above, this paper is intended to discuss the development and the changes of the English adjective. Since the discussion of the English adjective is quiet wide, it is limited on the discussion of the form and the comparative adjective. THE ENGLISH ADJECTIVE Many English words belong to more than one part of speech. Thus hope, love, sleep, etc. , may be nouns as well as verbs; chief; general, vegetable, etc. , may be nouns as well as adjectives; clean, dead, wide, etc. , are adjectives as well as adverbs; while may be either a noun, a verb or a conjunction; since may be an adverb, a preposition, or a conjunction; adjectives as well as verbs. The examples are as follows: They like black shoes, the word black is an adjective, and in the sentence: They black their shoes once a week, the word black here is a verb. So it is not so easy to say whether a word is an adjective just by looking at it in an isolation or form. It should be understood that an adjective is a word which is used with a noun or pronoun to describe the animate or inanimate things designated by the noun or pronoun. In other words, an adjective is a word which functions as a modifier to describe a noun or other substantive and traditionally, an adjective has been considered as a part of speech and used to denote word classes. An adjective has some characteristics such as follows: 1. It can freely occur in attributive position as a pre-modifier of a noun, for example: a beautiful park, naughty boys. 2. It can occur alone after a verb as a subject complement, e. g. : The car is beautiful. My father looks old. 3. It can be preceded by very and other intensifying words, for example: The car is very beautiful. 4. It can take comparative and superlative forms whether it is inflectionally or by the addition of pre-modifier, e. g. : happy, happier, the happiest, and beautiful, more beautiful, the most beautiful. 5. Most of adjectives can be added with –ly to form adverbs, e. g. : happy happily, beautiful -beautifully. However, not every adjective has these characteristics. A word can be considered as an adjective when it can function as an attribute or predicate and it cannot function as a direct object. Adjectives are the prototypical modifiers. Adjectives are also one of the most difficult categories to classify, since they share many characteristics of either nouns or verbs. Adjectives, being less well-established as a category, are a more likely target for change. Adjectives in English have two distinct functions: they can be predicative (as in the rhythm is important) or attributive (as in contemporary poetry). In the former case they are closer to the verbal end of the continuum, because together with the copula verb hey form the verbal phrase, and in the latter case they may (but need not) be closer to the nominal end of the cline. There are various formal means of distinguishing between these two functions: it may be done by position, by intonation or stress, or by inflection. In the history of English, there have been important changes , which will be the main topic of discussion here OLD ENGLISH ADJECTIVE The period of the Old English is from 450 to 1150 and it is sometimes described as the period of full inflections, since during most of this period the endings of the noun, the adjective, and the verb are preserved more or less unimpaired. An important feature of the Germanic languages is the development of a twofold declension of the adjective: one, the strong declension; and the other is the weak one. The strong declension is used when the adjective alone must bear the primary burden of indicating the construction of the noun, and the weak or non-distinctive adjective, or a possessive has already performed the office of case, number and gender indication. The Old English adjective has three genders: masculine, feminine and neutral. It also has the same cases as on: nominative, genitive, dative, with the addition of an instrumental in the masculine and neutral singular. It is necessary to mention only such distinctive endings as the masculine accusative singular -ne, the feminine genitive and dative -re, and the genitive plural -ra as illustrations of this point. In the sense that this inflectional pattern contains such inflections especially associated with certain case and gender forms, it is a strong declension. It can be seen clearly in the following table that we find the ending -a for a masculine nominative singular adjective, -an for the accusative singular of the same gender, and – e for a feminine nominative singular. In fact the weak adjective declension corresponds point for point with the weak noun declension, even to the distinctive -e form in the neuter accusative singular. For example: An O. E noun eag = eye becomes eage in the neuter nominative singular, and nam = name becomes naman in the masculine dative singular. The strong declension is used predicatively and attributively without any other defining word, or when the adjective is not preceded by a demonstrative or possessive pronoun, such as follows: Waes seo aemne geong the woman was young Dol cyning a foolish king The weak declension is used after the demonstrative and possessive pronoun or after a definite article: Se dola cyning the foolish king Se ofermoda cyning the proud king Min leofa sunu my dear son The comparative adjective was formed of the suffix – ra, and the superlative ost, a few adjectives have –est . Examples: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| Meaning| eald| ieldra| ieldest| old| earm| earmra| earmost| poor| We also find some words with the comparative formed from an adverb or preposition with the superlative –um, or –uma , in Latin loan words: optimus (best), summus (highest). For the word ending in –m ceased to be felt as having superlative force, some words taken by analogy the additional ending -est. It makes the double superlative with the suffix -umist- , then becomes -ymist- and develops further into -imest -, -emest-, and mest , such as in formest, midmest, and further examples are: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| Meaning| inne| innemra| innemest| within| after| after| aftermest| after| There are also some irregular comparisons in Old English adjectives, such as: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| got| bettra| betst| micel| mara| maest| MIDDLE ENGLISH ADJECTIVE The English language between the year 1150 and 1500 has already been characterized as Middle English. It was marked by momentous changes in English language, changes were more extensive and fundamental than those that have taken place at any time before or since. The changes of this period affected English in both its grammar and its vocabulary and the changes in English grammar may be described as a general reduction of inflection. Endings of the noun and adjective marking distinctions of number and case and often of gender were so altered in pronunciation as to lose their distinctive form and hence their usefulness. The result of the changes was that in Middle English the indication of gender distinguishing the masculine form was lost, because the ending –a (masculine nominative) and -e (neuter nominative accusative and feminine nominative) fell together in a single forms as -e. For example: Old English Middle English Se ealdu man the olde man(masculine) Se ealde talu the olde tale (feminine) Paet ealde swurd the olde sword (neuter) The weak adjective ending -an and -urn had already fallen together as -en. And because of the loss of final -n they also became to have only -e. But, there are very few sunrivals of the Old English genitive plural in –ra as Middle English -er, notably in aller from Old English ealra. Thus , the singular and plural forms of the weak adjective declension, -a, -e, -an, :em, and -urn, were reduced to a single ending in -e. Middle English monosyllabic adjectives ending in consonants remained uninflected throughout the singular and had -e throughout the plural: Singular Plural Brod brode God gode Glad glade The ending of accusative masculine singular -ne, the genitive and dative feminine singular -e (-ere) and a few isolated forms of the genitive plural were remained unchanged. The old English comparative ending –ra became – re, and the superlative suffixes –est and –ost fell together as -est , as in: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| hard| harder| hardest| fair| fairer| fairest| clene| clener| clenest| In Middle English there was also a process of shortening vowel. It happened when the root of an adjective was long , for example: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| swete| swetter| swettest| Middle English adjectives also had irregular comparison , for example: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| god| better| best| bade| worse| werst| icel| more(mara)| mest(most,mast)| MODERN ENGLISH ADJECTIVE In Early Modern English, it (English adjective) continued to form comparatives with –er and superlatives with –est. Analitical comparison with mo(e), more , and most wich had occur as early as Old English times also used in Early Modern English, but there are also some double comparison such as: more fitter, more better, mos t unkindest. In Modern English many adjectives are formed from words which are other parts of speech by the addition of suffixes (-ful, -less, -y, -ly, -like, etc. French, Latin, Greek suffixes, including –ous, -ant, -ent, -ate, -ac, (-ic), -able, (-ible), -esque, -ine, -ive, -ory, -ose, etc. also appear in many English adjectives: valorous, rampant, fluent, ornate, cardiac, poetic, tolerable, edible, grotesque, canine, civil, juvenile, elective, introductory, and verbose. In this case, some linguists propose some suffixes which typically indicate that a word is an adjective: Suffix| Add to| Result| -able| verb| washable| -al| noun| musical| -ed| noun| ragged| -esque| noun| romanesque| -ful| noun| hopeful| -ic| noun| heroic| ish| noun| foolish| -ive| verb| effective| -less| noun| restless| -like| noun| childlike| -ly| noun| friendly| -ous| noun| desirous| -some| noun| brothersome| -worthy| noun| praiseworthy| -y| noun| sandy| In comparison, adjectives of one syllable are regu larly compared by adding to the positive form –er for comparative, and –est for superlative. The only exception to this rule are few monosyllables, which are difficult to pronounce with the –er and -est suffixes, examples: real, wrong, like, etc. Examples are: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| clear| clearer| clearest| ide| wider| widest| sweet| sweeter| sweetest| More and most are employed for more than two syllables adjectives. Examples are: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| beautiful| more beautiful| most beautiful| difficult| more difficult| most difficult| diligent| more diligent| most diligent| To show special emphasis, some adjectives of one or two syllables have both patterns of comparison: calm, calmer, calmest or calm, more calm, most calm. When it is used in the appositive position adjectives are generally compared with more and most: I never knew a man more calm or more kind than you. For phonetic reason many adjectives ending in –al, -ar, -ard, -en, -ure, -erse, -ful, -ed, -om, -ic,- is,- ive, -ous, -ose, -que, etc. are compared by the employment of more or most. Examples are: Positive| Comparative| Superlative| musical| more musical| most musical| hopeful| more hopeful| most hopeful| heroic| more heroic| most heroic| effective| more effective| most effective| desirous| more desirous| most desirous| Compound adjectives are sometimes compared by inflecting the first element of the compound, for example: well-known, better-known, best-known. There are also some adjectives which are not regularly compared with –er or –est have superlative forms in –est and comparative with more. The –est superlative is preferred when the adjective has pronominal function or preceded by the definite article. For example: He is the handsomest of the boys. Adjectives are distinguished by a specific combinability with nouns, which they modify, if not accompanied by adjuncts, usually in pre-position, and occasionally in postposition; by a combinability with link-verbs, both functional and notional; by a combinability with modifying adverbs. Adjectives are the third major class of words in English, after nouns and verbs. Adjectives are words expressing properties of objects (e. g. large, blue, simple, clever, economic, progressive, productive, etc. ) and, hence, qualifying nouns. Adjectives in Modern English do not change for number or case. The only grammatical category they have is the degrees of comparison. They are also characterized by functions in the sentence. In the sentence the adjective performs the functions of an attribute and a predicative. CONCLUSION It is right, as stated above in the introduction, that a language is changing from time to time. And of course, it happens to English. The English of a thousand years ago was different from the English of five hundred years ago, and so the English of today will be different from the English of the fourth millennium. The differences of the English from centuries to centuries are not only on a certain aspect, but on many aspects as well as on the English adjective. The Old English adjective had inflectional modification to indicate numbers, genders, cases, and degrees of comparisons, and there was a distinction of weak and strong declensions. In Middle English, most of the declensional distinctions were lost, the general tendency of the language is to drop all suffixes. Adjectives in Modem English do not change their forms to show changes in number, case, or gender; and only a few adjectives of the pronominal class possess meanings which indicate number. One, and every, each modify singular nouns while several, few, many modify only plural substantives. In Modem English no adjective is capable of indicating gender or case. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Baugh A. C. and T. Cable. A History of the English Language. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. , 1978. 2. Crystal, D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 3. Hogg, R and A. Denison. A history of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 4. Frank, Marcella. Modern English Grammar: a Practical Reference Guide. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. , 1972. 5. Wardhaugh, R. An Introduction to Social linguistics Cambridge: Blackwell Publisher, 1992. . An Elementary Middle English Grammar; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1928. 7. Suwardy, A. The development of English Adjectives. [emailprotected] com 8. www. cambridge. org/9780521662277